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            作者:来源:办公室 发布日期:2012-02-09 00:00字体大小:【】【】【

             

              陈大庆,男,1964年4月30日出生,中共党员/九三社员,博士、研究员,长江所党委书记、副所长。华中农业大学硕士生导师,西南大学博士生导师,主要从事渔业资源环境研究。

              科研历程及主要成就: 自1987年毕业至今,一直在长江所从事渔业资源环境方面研究,在长江渔业资源的评价、长江主要经济鱼类的繁殖与利用以及长江三峡工程对长江渔业资源的影响研究上有所专长。先后主持和参加国家、部委科研项目30项,其研究工作的创新点有:借鉴西方海洋渔业资源评估技术,结合我国国情,建立了长江鲥鱼资源评估模型,为长江鲥鱼资源保护奠定了基础;针对长江“四大家鱼”资源不断衰退的情况,规划论证了长江监利老江河“四大家鱼”种质资源库,并在实施中取得成功,形成了显著的经济和社会效益;与国务院三峡办密切合作,对因三峡工程建设引起的渔业生态环境问题进行监测研究,为减免工程不利影响,采取有效措施保护渔业资源提供了科学依据。学术方面,在国内外学术刊物上发表论文60余篇。其取得的科研成果获得农业部奖励5项,是长江所渔业资源与环境研究领域的学科带头人。

            代表性论文:
            [1] Chen D Q, Zhang C L, Lu C, Chang Y H and Chang J B. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the genetic structure of the Gymnocypris przewalskii population from the Qinghai Basin, China. J. Appl. Ichthy, 2005, 21(3):178-183.
            [2] Li Yan, Dengqian Wang, Yaoling Fang , Shaoping Liu, Xingbing Duan, Yonghua Chang, Daqing Chen*. Genetic diversity in the bronze gudgeon, Coreius heterodon, from the Yangtze River system based on mtDNA sequences of the control region. Environmental Biology of Fishes,
            [3] Fan, X., Q. Wei, J. Chang, H. Rosenthal, J. He, D. Chen, L. Shen, H. Du & D. Yang. A review on conservation issues in the upper Yangtze River - a last chance for a big challenge: Can Chinese paddlefish (Psephurus gladius), Dabry's sturgeon, (Acipenser dabryanus) and other fish species still be saved? J. Appl. Ichthyol. 2006, 22 (Supplement 1): 32-39
            [4] M. Liao, L. Zhang, G. Yang, M. Zhu, D. Wang, Q. Wei, G. Zou and D. Chen. Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aritichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy Animal Genetics, 2007, 38: 364-370.
            [5] Xueyan Shen, Guanpin Yang, , Yongjian Liu, Meijie Liao, Xiaochen Wang, Mingzhuang Zhu, Weibo Song, Guiwei Zou, Qiwei Wei, Dengqiang Wang, Daqing Chen. Construction of genetic linkage maps of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) based on AFLP and microsatellite DNA markers [J].
            Aquaculture, 2007, 271 :178–187
            [6] 陈大庆,常剑波,顾洪宾. 金沙江一期工程对保护区生态环境影响与对策研究. 长江科学院院报,2005, 22(2): 21-24
            Abstract: Four hydropower stations located on the lower reaches of Jinsha River, i.e., Wudongde Power Station, Baihetan Power Station, Xiloudu Power Station and Xiangjiaba Power Station, have been planned. The Xiloudu Power Station and Xiangjiaba Power Station have been recommended as the first stage engineering of Jinsha River hydropower exploitations. After the construction of first stage engineering of Jinsha River hydropower utilizations, it will lead to a series of riverbed and hydrology changes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Also it will exert a serious influence on the Hejiang-Leibo national nature reserve of endangered fishes. According to the characteristics of the first stage engineering of Jinsha River hydropower exploitations and the current situations of ecology and environment in the nature reserves, the authors analyze the comprehensive influences of Jinsha River hydropower projects on the rare fishes, peculiar fishes and economic fishes and on the ecological environment of their inhabitations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River after the project implementation in terms of ecology. The authors also put forward the appropriate protection coutermeasures.
            [7] 陈大庆,张春霖,鲁 成,张 信. 青海湖裸鲤繁殖群体线粒体基因组D-LOOP区序列多态性. 中国水产科学, 2006, 13(5): 800-806.
            Abstract: The Qinghai Lake is the largest inland brackish water lake in china with a high salt and alkali contents, covering an area of 4 456 km2 and being located 3 200 meters above sea level. It is located in the north-east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the climate is cold and the freezing season is long. Gymnocypris przewalskii (Kessler) is a brackish and cold water fish species peculiar to the Qinghai Lake and its tributaries which has evolved in the long period of geographical isolation of the water system of the Yellow River having significant migration for reproduction. Every year, it ascends to the tributaries for spawning from March to July. It has low fecundity. It is omnivores, feeding on planktons and the insects fallen into the water. It is economically a very important fish species in the area of the Qinghai Lake. In recent decades, the deterioration of ecological environment (such as dryness of the inflowing rivers, sharp decline in precipitation, decease in water level, increase in evaporation and salt contents of the lake water etc.) and over-fishing in the Lake area have led to a decrease of their stock abundance by 90% in comparison with that at the beginning of its exploitation. Now, it has became an endangered fish and listed as the state-protected rare species. Judging from phenotypic characters, there exists a rather large variability within the species, which is reflected in the variability in their feeding organs, such as the number of gill-rakers, the position of mouth and the lengths of intestines, these are consistent with the character of omnivority that has been formed in their survival environment for the paucity of food organisms. Besides, there are considerable variabilities in body form and body color. In this study, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique was use in an attempt to analyze the genetic structure of this fish species at mitochondrial D-loop level, in order to provide a new base for the assessment and protection of its population genetic diversities.
            The materials used in this experiment were collected from the Heima River, the Buha River and the Shaliu River, in July, 2002, when G. przewalskii ascended for reproduction, with a total of 45 specimens, i.e. 15 samples from per river. 3-5 g of muscle tissue per individual was taken for preservation in anhydrous alcohol. The mitochondrial D-loop of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Kessler) from different districts (the Heimahe River, the Buhahe River and the Shaliuhe River) of the Qinghaihu Lake were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, its sequence being determined to be 1 065 bp. A research was conducted on the genetic structure of 83 individuals from the 3 districts through a comparative analysis of D-loop sequence of their mitochordria genome. A total of 65 polymorphic sites were detected, including an insertion site (b3, nt-569), two deletions (s6 and b37, nt-169 and nt-170) and 62 polymorphic sites. The number of polymorphic sites are 51 for the Heimahe population (Hm), 38 for the Buhahe population (Bh) and 39 for the Shaliuhe population (S1), respectively, with the different number of average nucleotide sites of the three population being 9.377, 7.782 and 7.510, respectively. The results showed that the genetic distance between Hm and Bh was the smallest (0.01093), between Bh and S1 secondly (0.01423), and between Hm and S1 the largest (0.01909). The genetic distance between any two populations was all above 0.10, and the total genetic diffierentiation index of the three population was 0.01926. The gene flow Nm was 12.73. In the molecular phylogenetic tree constructed in the method of UPGMA, S1 aggregated a branch, and Hm and Bh were mixed together, aggregating into another branch. Judued by sequence difference analysis, S1 was more distantly related up Hm than to Bh, while Hm and Bh were more closely related. The above data also showed that there existed quite a weak genetic differentiation and quite a strong gene exchange among the three population simultaneously.
            [8] 陈大庆,张信,熊飞,刘绍平,唐洪玉. 青海湖裸鲤生长特征的研究. 水生生物学报, 2006, 30(2): 173-179
            Abstract: In this study, 1175 samples of Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii ,which were collected from the Qinghai Lake from May ,2002 to July ,2003 ,were aged by determining the annuli of otoliths. Regressive body length was used to fix the Von Bertalanffy function. Otoliths are good materials in age determination, which have relatively clear annuli and are unlikely to lose annuli because of absorption or erosion. Besides, the growth rates were calculated from the ages of these fish samples. The survey during the period from May to August showed that the sex ratio of males to females in the brood stock was 1166 to 1. This is consistent with the results of the statistics in the 60s and 90s of the 20th century. In all the brood stocks, the body length and body weight of the smallest male individual at the age of 4 was 13010mm and 2810g, respectively, while the body length and body weight of the smallest female individual at the age of 5was 17010mm and 5110g ,respectively. The age composition was from 4 to 11. The mean body length and body weight of female were bigger than those of male. The body length and body weight was in the relation of power function. The relationship of body length to body weight for the female was W = 01000174 ×L2149899 ,and that for the male W = 010000402 ×L2175382 . There was a significant difference in growth between the female and male. Their growth could be described by Von Bertalanffy equations Lt = 55119301 [ 1 - e - 0107112( t + 013044) ] (female) , Lt = 68218688 [ 1 - e - 0105304( t + 014240) ] (male) , Wt = 123713431(1 - e - 010711( t + 013044) ) 214990 (female) , Wt = 256713242 (1 - e - 010530( t + 014240) ) 217538 (male) . The inflection points for the growth of female and male were 12157 and 18167, respectively. Otolith described the growth of Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii well, scale and dorsal fin spine could not do better.
            [9] 陈大庆,刘绍平,段辛斌,熊飞。长江中上游主要经济鱼类的渔业生物学特征。水生生物学报,2002,26(6):618-622
            Abstract: According to the monitoring data of fishery resources in the middle and upper reaches of
            the Yangtze River in 1996 —1999 , this paper deals with the fishery biological characteristics of ten
            species of major commercial fishes. The population growth parameters(K, L ∞ , W∞) ,total mortality
            coefficient, natural mortality coefficient , fishing mortality coefficient , total surviving rate , total mortality rate , natural mortality rate , fishing mortality rate and exploitation rate were estimated by the
            model of von Bertalanffy , Key and Beverton-Holt etc. The exploitation status of the stocks was also
            discussed. In view of the existing problems, the authors make some suggestions on the fishery management.
            [10] 刘绍平,陈大庆,段辛斌,球顺林,黄木桂。长江中上游四大家鱼资源监测与渔业管理。长江流域资源与环境,2004,13(2),183-186
            Abstract: The four famous Chinese carps, i. e, the black carp ( Mylopharyngodon ) , the grass carp
            (Ctenopharyngodon . idell us) , the silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molit ri x ) and the big - head carp ( A ristichthys nobilis) are the main species for freshwater fishery and aquaculture in China. According to the monitoring results from 1994 to 2001 and historical data, this paper deals with the analysis of the status of fishery resources of Chinese carps. The result s obtained are: (1) The ratio of Chinese carps in fishery has dropped in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River; (2) The proportion of the low age groups of Chinese carps increased and the advanced age group decreased; (3) The runoff of fry of Chinese carps was 3.587 billion, 2.747 billion, 2.154 billion, 2.864 billion, 1.904 billion in the Jianli Section of the Yangtze River from 1997 to 2001 respectively, when comparing with 6.700 billion in 1981. Base on the main influential factors strategies to manage the four famous Chinese carps resources were proposed, such as protecting spawning grounds, preserving relatively stabilization of natural waters, enhancing fishery management, building the carps releasing stations, establishment the management system of germplasm resources in the Yangtze River.
            [11] 刘绍平,陈大庆,张家波,邱顺林,樊启学。老江河故道四大家鱼天然资源库研究。水生生物学报,2002,26(6):628-634
            Abstract: The four major Chinese carps , i . e , black carp , silver carp , grass carp , bighead carp
            are the main species for freshwater aquaculture and fishing in China. This paper introduces the main
            point of the structure of natural resources reservoir of the four major Chinese carps in Laojianghe
            oxbow. Base on the characteristics of water ecosystem in Laojianghe oxbow, it is suggested that the
            stocking density and structure of the four major Chinese carps be controlled rationally on the basis of
            paying attention to germplasm quality. Otherwise the effective way of the protection and utilization of
            germplasm resources of the four major Chinese carps , and the key of the normal running of natural
            resources reservoir of the four major Chinese carps in Laojianghe oxbow were being dealt with.
            [12] 陈大庆,邱顺林,刘绍平,黄木桂。老江河水生植被。中国水产科学,1998,5(1):62-67
            Abstract: Aquatic vegetation in Laojianghe lake was investigated in 1991 - 1994. The results showed that the aquatic flora in the lake covered 17 families, 21 genus, 27 species. It was found that Vallisneria spi rallis, Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton malaianus and Potamogeton crispus were dominant species. The distribution of aquatic vegetation was irregular zonations, and could be divided into 3 zones of vegetation (emergent vegetation, leaf – floating vegetation and submerged vegetation) from shore to center of the lake and 9 main community types. The trends of aquatic flora were that the communities of Phragmites com munis, Myriphyllum spicatum, Najas marina and Najas minor became larger, the communities of Nelumbo nucif era, Trapa bispinosa, Vallisneria spi ralis, Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton malaianus and Ceratophyll um demersum became smaller, the communities of Salvinianatans, Azolla imbricata, Zizania latifolia etc. changed litter. Basing on the viewpoint of
            lake ecology, this paper also emphasized the importance of the submerged vegetation resources
            and made some suggestion on fishery development in this lake.
            [13] 熊飞,陈大庆,刘绍平,段辛斌,史建全。青海湖裸鲤不同年龄鉴定材料的年轮特征。水生生物学报,2006,30(2):185-191
            Abstract: Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii ( Kessler) is the only economically important local aquatic animal in the Qinghai Lake ,the biggest inland saltwater at the altitude of 3195 meters above the sea lever in China. Because the lake is in the zone of high elevation and severe cold, and the water temperature is rather low, the food organisms in the lake are in paucity. Thus, G.przewalskii przewalskii grows very slowly, and has a small brood amount as well as low survive rate. Since the exploration in 1958, its stock abundance decreased rapidly because of imperfect management and over2large intensity of fishing. At present, G. przewalskii is in the danger of depletion, and its depletion will severely destroy the ecological balance of the“coexistence of fishes and birds”, resulting in the collapse of the whole ecological system in the Qinghai Lake. Therefore, the saving of G. przewalskii przewalskii is especially important, and a series of researches on the biology and resources assessment were carried out from 2002. In this paper, the annuli characteristics of four kinds of ageing materials of G. przewalskii przewalskii have been described and compared in their usage in age determination.
            Four hundred and fifty samples of G. przewalskii przewalskii of different size were collected from the Qinghai Lake and the rivers around the lake from May 2002 to February 2003. The ages were identified though the materials of anal scales, otoliths, dorsal fin spines and vertebrae, respectively. The anal scales and vertebrae could be observed directly in transmitted light or reflected light after being washed and dipped in the KOH solution of 0. 5 % concentration, but the otoliths and dorsal fin spines should be sectioned by sand paper to the slices. The lapillus and dorsal fin spine were sectioned to 0.1 to 0.2mm thick slices and 0.5 to
            1.0mm thick slices respectively, and the asteriscus only needed a little section. The sectioned otoliths and dorsal fin spines could be made more transparent by dipping in dimethylbenzene for a while then airproofed by neutral gumon the glass slices before being observed in the dissector or for long2term storage.
            The results showed that the ages of G. przewalskii przewalskii can be identified though the annuli characteristics of the anal scales, otoliths, dorsal fin spines and vertebrae. The annuli characteristics on the anal scales have two types. One is the type that has zones of widely and closely spaced circles which can form ridges, and the outer edges of the ridges are annuli. The other has no evident zones of widely and closely spaced circles, but possesses some obvious circles which are annuli at interval on the anal scales. It is not easy to identify the ages because of the irregulation of annuli on the anal scales, and the difficulty will increase when there are some disturbances of fry checks and false rings, which will decrease the accuracy of aging.
            The three pairs of otoliths of G. przewalskii przewalskii are all relatively big, among which lapillus look like the shape of horse foot, the shape of asteriscus is circular slice with concave center, and the shape of sagitta is long stick. Both lapillus and asteriscus can be used for ageing, coming to an agreement of 88 %. The error of the annuli readings has no evident increase with the increase of the ages ,and coming an agreement of 100 % where the error is ±1 annuli. Sagitta is not suitable for ageing because of its fragility. The annuli characteristics of the sectioned lapillus are more clear than those of the sectioned asteriscus, thus the accuracy of ageing though the lapillus is relatively higher. The sectioned asteriscus is very convenient to operate and this ageing method can be used when there are many samples to determine ages.
            Observed in transmitted light, wide opaque zones and lose translucent zones are in alternatives arrangement on the sectioned otoliths, dorsal fin spines and vertebrae. The boundaries between the translucent zones and the outer edges of the opaque zones are the annuli. The wide zones and close zones are just reversed when observed in reflected light. The observed results showed that the characteristics of the dorsal fin spines are relatively clearer than other ageing materials. For the vertebrae, the annuli from one to
            three close to the center and the annuli close to the outer edge are usually in illegibility.
            The comparisons of characteristics and ageing results showed that the interpretability of the four kinds of ageing materials is sectioned dorsal fin spine > sectioned lapillus > anal scale > vertebra. Sectioned dorsal fin spine is a better ageing material of the fish less than eight years. As for the fish older than eight years, sectioned lapillus is the relatively reliable ageing material that has more annuli readings than anal scale, dorsal fin spine and vertebra.

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